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Photograph of people at Drayton Plantation

Chapter 05

Making a Way

African Americans fought slavery and inequality in ways large and small, from open rebellion to subtle acts of resistance. Using connections—family, neighbors, worship services, and formal political conventions—African Americans shared news, created networks, and developed strategies for “making a way out of no way.” State and local governments responded with “black codes” and “slave codes,” race-based laws that attempted to restrict Black lives. African American persistence and grassroots organizing still serve as a model for social activists today.

Matted and framed runaway slave broadside with reward information. Black printed text on off white paper. The top is captioned with "100 Dolls. Reward."

A matted and framed broadside advertising a reward for the return of a fugitive enslaved man, Richard Low. The broadside is printed in black text on off-white paper. In large text at the top is [100 Dolls. REWARD.] followed by smaller text reading [My Negro man named Dick, commonly called "Richard Low," ran away from my residence in Upper Marlborough, Prince George's county, on the morning of the 18th of July instant. Dick is about 28 years of age, tall and stout built, perfectly black, has a full suit of har, and has lost one of his upper front teeth. He has a wife living with Mr. Saml. B. Anderson, nar the Depot, in Washington City. He is a blacksmith by trade, and is doubtless now in Washington City.]. At bottom right is the name of the poster: [JAMES B. BELT.] and at bottom center is [Upper Marlborough, July 19th 1853.].

Section VISeizing Freedom

Against great odds, enslaved African Americans escaped. They ran to family, to friends, or across borders to freedom.

Photograph of Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman

A white, square-shaped shawl made of silk lace and linen, given to Harriet Tubman by Queen Victoria around 1897.

Harriet Tubman’s Lace Shawl

Harriet Tubman: Seizing Freedom

Photograph of Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman

A white, square-shaped shawl made of silk lace and linen, given to Harriet Tubman by Queen Victoria around 1897.

Harriet Tubman’s Lace Shawl

Known as a slight and delicate girl, Araminta Ross grew up to change her name and become Harriet Tubman (ca. 1822–1913), one of the nation’s most courageous antislavery activists. Born on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, Tubman refused to accept enslavement for herself or others. As a young woman, she ran for freedom, making her way up Maryland’s Eastern Shore to Philadelphia. She returned to the South nine times to guide others to freedom. Over her lifetime, she helped free hundreds of enslaved people. England’s Queen Victoria gave Tubman this shawl around 1897 in recognition of her work.

Map with illustration of Underground Railroad routes

Map of Underground Railroad Routes

The Underground Railroad

Map with illustration of Underground Railroad routes

Map of Underground Railroad Routes

The Underground Railroad was a secret network built upon local knowledge and resources. Black people had long relied upon one another’s skills, courage, and strategic insights to escape from enslavement. By the antebellum period, growing interracial efforts helped to secure freedom for a number of enslaved people and provided a coalition for the antislavery movement.

The Underground Railroad was not an actual railroad, but a path to freedom for self-liberation. Fugitive enslaved people moved along routes that included safe houses, leading north to Canada or south to Mexico and the Caribbean.

This map shows the general direction of movement from slave states to free territory, including terrestrial and maritime networks closely monitored by slave catchers. Conductors, like Harriet Tubman, risked their lives to emancipate African Americans throughout the South. Despite numerous precautions and the help from abolitionists, danger was always present.

There was one of two things I had a right to, liberty, or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other . . . I should fight for my liberty.

Harriet Tubman to Sarah Bradford, 1886

Image of book of hymns

Harriet Tubman’s Hymnal

Harriet Tubman's Hymnal

Image of book of hymns

Harriet Tubman’s Hymnal

A fiercely religious woman, Tubman spoke of visions and dreams that helped provide a moral compass throughout her life. The wear-and-tear on this hymnal suggests that she must have loved it and used it quite frequently.

Runaway Broadside

Against great odds, enslaved African Americans escaped. They ran to family, to friends, or across borders to freedom. A runaway risked brutal punishment and retribution against loved ones left behind.

Matted and framed runaway slave broadside with reward information. Black printed text on off white paper. The top is captioned with "100 Dolls. Reward."

A matted and framed broadside advertising a reward for the return of a fugitive enslaved man, Richard Low. The broadside is printed in black text on off-white paper. In large text at the top is [100 Dolls. REWARD.] followed by smaller text reading [My Negro man named Dick, commonly called "Richard Low," ran away from my residence in Upper Marlborough, Prince George's county, on the morning of the 18th of July instant. Dick is about 28 years of age, tall and stout built, perfectly black, has a full suit of har, and has lost one of his upper front teeth. He has a wife living with Mr. Saml. B. Anderson, nar the Depot, in Washington City. He is a blacksmith by trade, and is doubtless now in Washington City.]. At bottom right is the name of the poster: [JAMES B. BELT.] and at bottom center is [Upper Marlborough, July 19th 1853.].

Broadside offering reward for Dick (Richard Low), 1853

A broadside with printed black text on off-white paper. Large, bold text at the top reads [$1000 / REWARD!] Followed by smaller text reading [RAN AWAY from the subscribers on the night of the 5th inst. a NEGRO MAN named / George, / aged 22 or 23 years, 5 feet 7 or 8 inches in height] and goes on to describe his appearance and possible clothing, which includes [a green frock cloth coat, with a black velvet collar, a low-crowned white silk hat]. The text then continues on to describe [one negro BOY, aged 25 or twenty-six years; named / Jefferson], as well as [One negro girl named ESTHER (nicknamed Puss,) aged 17 or 18, black, tall, slim and regularly proportioned, - diffident and serious, embarrassed hen addressed, and at the same time picks or plays with fingers.] who is the sister of George, and [a girl named AMANDA, aged 15 or 16, a dark copper colored mulatto, thick and heavy set, 5 ft. 4 inches high, has a sullen and impudent look, a large head of hair, and a green lincy dress.] The text goes on to give the terms of the reward, which promised $300 for either George or Jefferson and $200 for either Esther or Amanda. At bottom left is [Germantown, Mason Co. Ky. / 20th January, 1840] and at bottom right are the names of the posters: [ANDERSON DONIPHAN / JOSEPH FRAZEE / JOHN D. MORFORD]. There is considerable loss at the bottom right corner of the page.

Broadside offering reward for George, Jefferson, Esther, and Amanda, 1840

I could be called a ‘conductor’ on the underground railway, only we didn’t call it that . . . we just knew there was a lot of slaves always a-wantin’ to get free, and I had to help ‘em.

Arnold Gragston, 1938

Illustration of Margaret Garner

The Modern Medea, by Thomas Satterwhite Noble, 1867

A Mother's Sacrifice

Illustration of Margaret Garner

The Modern Medea, by Thomas Satterwhite Noble, 1867

Margaret Garner was born enslaved on Maplewood Plantation in Boone County, Kentucky. After giving birth to three children fathered by her enslaver, Margaret escaped to Ohio with her children and husband, Robert.

They crossed the Ohio River on foot from Kentucky, stopping at a relative’s house in Cincinnati before continuing the journey to Canada. However, what was supposed to be a rest stop became a standoff when federal marshals accosted the home. As Robert defended his family with just a pistol, Margaret would make a choice that still remains deeply polarizing and hauntingly powerful. Deciding that death was better than a life of enslavement, Margaret killed her two-year-old daughter, Mary, and attempted to kill her other children and herself.

Margaret Garner’s story inspired this painting and Toni Morrison’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, Beloved.

This oil painting depicts a fugitive enslaved man and woman beset by three mastiff dogs in a marshy landscape. On the right side of the painting are two human figures who face left across the painting to the dogs.The man stands in a half-crouch between the dogs and the woman, wielding a hatchet in his upraised right hand. Dangling from his clenched left wrist is a pair of manacles, with one cuff broken open. He wears a pair of faintly patterned brown trousers to mid-thigh, and has a red sash around his waist. His body has numerous scars and a round brand or tattoo on his left shoulder. The woman is half-crouched behind him knees bent, both arms raised to shoulder height, palms faced outward as she peers over the man's shoulder. She wears a sleeveless, loosely draped soiled white top, and a brown striped skirt tucked above her knees. Her hair is drawn back and she has small hoop earrings. The dogs are on the left side of the painting, with one of the dogs lying wounded between the two groups of figures. The scene takes place in an area of trampled tall grass with grey water in the background and a livid red horizon. In the bottom right corner there is a striped snake twining up a mossy dead log.

The Hunted Slave, 1861

Risking Death for Freedom

This oil painting depicts a fugitive enslaved man and woman beset by three mastiff dogs in a marshy landscape. On the right side of the painting are two human figures who face left across the painting to the dogs.The man stands in a half-crouch between the dogs and the woman, wielding a hatchet in his upraised right hand. Dangling from his clenched left wrist is a pair of manacles, with one cuff broken open. He wears a pair of faintly patterned brown trousers to mid-thigh, and has a red sash around his waist. His body has numerous scars and a round brand or tattoo on his left shoulder. The woman is half-crouched behind him knees bent, both arms raised to shoulder height, palms faced outward as she peers over the man's shoulder. She wears a sleeveless, loosely draped soiled white top, and a brown striped skirt tucked above her knees. Her hair is drawn back and she has small hoop earrings. The dogs are on the left side of the painting, with one of the dogs lying wounded between the two groups of figures. The scene takes place in an area of trampled tall grass with grey water in the background and a livid red horizon. In the bottom right corner there is a striped snake twining up a mossy dead log.

The Hunted Slave, 1861

Many enslaved people ran away, but few made it to freedom. The path was too treacherous, and the cost too dear. This painting entitled “The Hunted Slave” was painted by Richard Ansdell in 1861. It depicts an enslaved couple escaping to freedom. They fight for their freedom and their lives as the husband beats back slave hunting hounds.